Arches with solid walls and a through-frame structure began to be used at the beginning of the 20th century. True, at first, preference was given to arches with solid walls: obviously, due to their more massive outline, then the designers seemed more reliable to the designers, moreover, they did not require such complex formwork as arches with a through-frame structure.
Arches with solid walls were used in 1904 during the construction of the Tram bridge across the Terek in Vladikavkaz (now Ordzhonikidze), consisting of three spans 22.3 m each, a three-span horse-drawn bridge across the river. Saksagan in the village of Veselye Terny, Yekaterinoslavskaya province (three spans of 18.2 m, built by Rudnitsky and Orpishevsky) and a single-span bridge in the village of Volnovka, Saratov province (span of about 21 m). The facades of the tympanum arches in all these bridges were divided by panels.
The largest structure with arches with solid walls (they were then called “bridges with ribbed arches”) is a multi-span bridge across the river. Kazari (Kazargen) in Estonia. The bridge blocks the river with thirteen spans – then it was the longest reinforced concrete bridge in Europe.
The bridge was built by the firms Tomi and Deichman (supports) and Moniqueur and Egger (reinforced concrete superstructures) between January and July 1904. The construction was distinguished by a good organization of work and a high pace (the speed of concreting reached two spans a week).
The pillars of the bridge were built of granite and cement mortar. The roughly chipped surface of the blocks enhanced the feeling of the monumentality of the building. On the upper side of the bulls, inclined ice cutters were made (later, their surface was protected by reinforced concrete shirts, which violated the previous integrity of the composition of the supports).
Each span consists of three arches, connected from above by a reinforced concrete slab of the carriageway and supporting it with transverse beams. The facades of the tympanic arches are dissected by shallow panels. The space between the arches is filled with reinforced concrete facade walls of the supports. The sidewalk overhangs are supported by sparsely spaced consoles, the location of which corresponds to the location of the internal crossbeams.
For all the laconicism of architectural forms, the bridge over Kazari is very expressive. A strong impression is made by the rhythm of its arches running away into the distance, the clear step of the supports, repeated by the location of the railing pedestals. This interesting building is registered as an architectural monument.
Among the first bridges of a different type – with a structure made of pillars – one should note the bridges over the Shevyrovka river in the Saratov district and across the Tomakovka in Kirillov Brod (Yekaterinoslavsky district), built in 1903 and 1904. The bridges are single-span, with spans of 25.6 m, covered with rather gentle arches. The abutments are massive, with stone cladding.