What is the Capital of Brazil?
Brasilia is the current capital of the State of Brazil, preceded by the city of Salvador and then the city of Rio de Janeiro, and Brasilia was established in the central western part of the country as part of President Joselino Kubitschek’s national modernization plan during the period between 1956 AD to 1960 AD, and the capital is characterized by Brasilia, with its design and layout that appears in the form of an airplane when viewed from the air, is the only city in the world that has this feature. Costa), where Oscar made the design of the capital while Lucio was responsible for developing the urban plan for it.
Plano Pilotto is the heart and core of the city. This design was developed to form an entire city with places to live which made it a model for modern cities during the 20th century. Brasilia is the federal capital of Brazil, as it contains the residence of the President of the Republic as well as being the place where many governmental and constitutional bodies such as the Supreme Court and the Brazilian Congress are located. The capital city of Brasília includes the world’s largest heritage area with an area of 112.5 km². Accordingly, it was added to the world heritage map as a World Cultural Heritage site by UNESCO, but this great heritage of Brasilia did not make it snatch the position of the cultural capital owned by the city of Rio de Janeiro, which has great prestige. Cultural institutions are concentrated in it, so Brasilia remained the only political capital of the country.
Subdivisions of Brazil
List of administrative sub-levels that make up Brazil.
|Federal District||Spirit of Santo||Goias|
|Maranhao||Mato Grosso||Mato Grosso do Sul|
|Rio de Janeiro||Rio Grande do Norte||Rio Grande do Sul|
The city is located on a plateau with a height of 1172 m above sea level, 927 km from Rio de Janeiro and 869 km from Sao Paulo (in a straight line).
Geographic data: latitude 15° 47′ -1″ S; longitude 47° 55′ 0″ W
How to get there
Many international airlines operate daily flights to the capital of Brazil, with connections in European capitals or major European cities.
The flight from Rio de Janeiro and from Sao Paulo to Brasilia will take about 1 hour, the trip by car from Rio to Brasilia will last about 15 hours, from Sao Paulo about 14 hours.
The city of Brasilia has undoubtedly become the most famous example of modern Brazilian architecture, where the architect’s imagination was given free rein.
Since the second half of the 18th century, the Brazilian authorities have periodically raised the issue of moving the government residence from Rio de Janeiro – one of the most overpopulated cities in Latin America – inland, to a place protected from a possible attack from the sea. The first Constitution of the Republic (1891) determined that the future Federal District should be located on a rectangular plot of land in the state of Goias, in the heart of the country.
In 1956, during the reign of Juscelino Kubizek, after eight years of survey work, the design and construction of a new capital began. The site chosen for Brasilia in the Federal District has an area of 5.814 sq. km., is located in the sparsely populated territory of the state of Goias.
While still the mayor of Belo Horizonte, Kubitschek met the architect Oscar Niemeyer, and after becoming president, he invited him to design the new capital of Brazil. Niemeyer agreed to work on major government buildings, but advised an open competition for the master plan. The competition was announced on July 19, 1956, with 26 entries, and the winner was the project of Niemeyer’s friend and teacher, the Brazilian modernist architect Lucio Costa. He suggested that the city be built in the shape of a cross, or, as some saw it, in the shape of an airplane, both of which were very symbolic.
Brasilia can be proud – the city was planned by Lucio Costa, important government buildings were designed by Oscar Niemeyer, the landscape painter Robert Burley-Marsh planned the gardens, selected plants that could green the dry plateau – a trio of geniuses participated in the birth of the new capital. Simplicity of drawings, economy of construction materials, large open spaces – these are the foundations of the teachings of the French maestro Le Corbusier, who had a great influence on Brazilian architecture, the same are the design principles of Brasilia, the city of the future, the cradle of modern art, practical style. On April 21, 1960, Brasilia was officially opened and the city was proclaimed the new capital of the country.
At the end of the 50s of the last century, Niemeyer resolutely departed from stereotypes – he managed to design not so much structures as sculptural works, reminiscent of architectural monuments of an as yet unseen civilization, so clearly looming against the background of clouds and a tropical sky. He created his own style, in which the shape of an Indian hut got along with the arcades of colonial architecture, and spherical domes (so similar to UFO saucers) already looked into the future of the space age. Its columns, as it were, barely touch the ground and therefore are perceived not as an ancient symbol of power, but emphasize simplicity and lightness; reinforced concrete buildings are devoid of massiveness and look very plastic and laconic, and the water and green landscape organically woven into the exterior seem to enliven them.
In the bow of the “aircraft” there is a squareThree powers (Praca dos Tres Poderes), symbolizing the equality and unity of the legislative, executive and judicial powers. In the center of the square, recognized as a miracle of taste, balance of proportions, strength and elegance, a hundred-meter mast with a giant flag of the national flag is installed. Two lines of 20-story ministerial buildings stretched parallel from the square, separated by a huge green field. Along the buildings there are wide routes, twisted in front of the TV tower by rings of absolutely identical road junctions. An implausible feeling is created that only one part of the city is real, while the second is its mirror image.
There are two symmetrical 28-story twin towers in the square, which house the apparatus of the National Congress .
In appearancePalace of Justice , where the Ministry of Justice is located, O. Niemeyer combined architecture and nature: the building is surrounded by water, and cascades are arranged on the facade, from where, like a waterfall, water flows day and night.
Plateau Palace , where the President’s office is located, is unusually light, and the clean lines of the columns create an indescribable feeling of lightness – as if the building soared above the ground. The same impression is made by the Palace of the Supreme Court, located on the other side of the square.
Itamaraty Palace– a glass cube, covered from above by a frame of reinforced concrete arches. As if from water, the arched building of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Itamaraty Palace, grows out of the water, which can only be reached by bridges from the facade and ends. The columns, which are taken out of the outer wall and doubled in length due to reflection in the water, seem almost ethereal and create such a light and airy gallery, along which it is not clear what the multi-ton concrete roof rests on, protecting the interior of the glass building from the sun.
Each building, invented by Niemeyer, stuns with unusual contours, bold lines, unexpected shapes. One of the symbols of the city is the Cathedral., shot up into the sky with a huge glass cone, surrounded by white columns sharpened like pencils. The cathedral is surrounded on all sides by water. To get inside, you need to go down the ramp. Passing through the twilight of the corridor, the visitor finds himself in the sun-drenched vast space of the cathedral. The stained-glass windows throughout the interior are simply amazing. So, for example, the Temple of the convinced atheist Niemeyer is more like an alien ship than a traditional church.
The fact that the capital is located very far from the sea does not mean that there is nothing to do there.
Brasilia is the cultural center of the country, the National Theater with several stages, the Museum of Brazil, the Institute of History, which holds interesting exhibitions, was built there.
Brasilia is a very green city, the number of parks is incalculable, and in the national. In the Pantanal Park you can go boating and fishing, by the way, this is a favorite pastime of Brazilian officials. Also of interest is the zoo, some exotic animals of the Amazonian selva can only be seen there. The city has many different entertainment venues, without which any Brazilian city is not a city.
The recreation park, located next to the TV tower, covers an area of 4 million 200 thousand square meters. km. This is a huge space of a nature reserve, where absolutely everything is provided: monorails, playgrounds, bicycle paths, a lake where you can go fishing, a pool with artificial meter waves.