Mausoleum of Babadzha

The Babadzha-Khatun mausoleum, one of the most ancient architectural monuments, preserved on the territory of Kazakhstan (the village of Golovachevka, near the city of Dzhambul), dates back to the end of the 10th and the beginning of the 11th century, that is, it is younger than the Samanids mausoleum by a whole century.

The publications dedicated to him do not differ in the completeness of the study of the monument, nevertheless, they make it possible to carry out graphical analyzes to establish the proportionality of at least the construction plan.

The mausoleum has a centric composition with an underdeveloped portal and reflects a transitional stage in the addition of the typology of mausoleum structures. Obviously, this can explain its “three-facades”, that is, the main and two side facades are architecturally revealed.

The rear façade is deaf and has no architectural divisions, the main one is raised by a parapet filled with epigraphic ornament. Along the axis of the composition is a slightly recessed entrance arch with a semicircular outline, along its sides there are also semicircular niches, above the niches there are round cartouches. The composition is reinforced with a rectangular brickwork frame.

The cuboid volume of the mausoleum ends with a low ribbed drum, turning into a conical ribbed dome.

The under-dome square is 440 X 440 cm, or 7 × 7 gyaz (with a gyaz equal to 63 cm).

The composition of the plan of a drum with sixteen ribs was reduced to the construction of four squares, the corners of which were the edges of the ribs, and to dividing the circle (its diameter is equal to the side of the outer square) into 16 parts, which could be done both graphically and analytically.

In the architecture of the interior, the architect abandoned the traditional methods of constructing a quadruple and an octagon, as was the case in the Samanid mausoleum. At a height commensurate with the walls of the room, the heels of lancet closed corner sails protrude, which at a height create a regular octahedron.

Vertical architectural divisions dominate here, which emphasizes the harmony of proportions.

From the analysis of the construction of the plan of the Babaja-Khatun mausoleum, it follows that the dimensions of the parts and the whole structure were not determined by chance, they are due to traditional geometric methods of constructing an architectural form.

The meters here are the dome square and its derivatives – the side and the diagonal; the plan of the building, obviously, was drawn on a scale, modular grid (with a cell equal to 1 gyaz), there was a modular coordination of irrational values.