Mausoleum of Mazlumkhan

Medieval underground mausoleum Mazlumkhan Sulu, built in epoch of Gold Horde. One of most ancient buildings in Uzbekistan. Located in necropolis Mizdakhan, Xojayli, near NukusThe earliest piece of architecture revived after the Mongol invasion of Khorezm was, apparently, the Mazlumkhan-Sulu mausoleum, located on the territory of the ancient necropolis Mizdahkan.

In the scientific literature, various opinions have been expressed about the time of construction of this unique structure. A. Yu. Yakubovsky attributed the building to the end of the XIII – the beginning of the XIV century. This point of view was shared by BN Zasypkin.

V. I. Pilyavsky dated the monument to the beginning of the XIII century. by style. V. M. Filimonov shares this opinion.

Archaeological research carried out on the territory of the necropolis of the ancient Mizdahkan confirmed the previously expressed opinion that the mausoleum of Mazlumkhan-Sulu belongs to the monuments of the first half of the XIV century.

The Mazlumkhan-Sulu mausoleum was measured in detail by S. B. Neumyvakin and V. M. Filimonov. V.M. Filimonov carried out detailed analyzes of the proportions of the structure.

The initial parameter for determining the proportions of the Mazlumkhan-Sulu mausoleum was the square of the main room, the sides of which are equal to 738 cm. The core of the complex is a weakly expressed rectangle. The construction is simple. The diagonal of the semi-square is drawn in the dome square. Doubling it determines the length, and doubling the side of the square determines the width of the kernel rectangle.

The thickness of the outer walls of the core is commensurate with the half-difference between the diagonal and the side of the original square. In the proportions of the structure, both the side and the diagonals of the square and semi-square are fixed, that is, there is a combination of number and size.

This combination is reflected in the construction of the architectural form and individual elements of the structure.

The tectonic structure of the main hall of the complex is a traditional quadrangle, octagon and an overturned bowl of an octahedral closed dome. All this is well read in the interior. However, here the quaver with the smooth surface of the wall passes into the zone of stalactite corner sails.

The above methods of constructing the architectural form of the Mazlumkhan-Sulu mausoleum allow us to state that after the Mongol devastation, the architects continued to work in the old traditions.

However, new architectural and artistic ideas are gradually emerging, a new style direction appears and develops, which found expression in the architecture of the Turabek-khanym mausoleum, representing the high architectural and artistic culture of Khorezm of the Golden Horde period.