USSR meaning is The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Also known as the Soviet Union. It was a federation of republics of communist ideology. That existed from 1922 to 1991. The USSR occupied the present territories of Russia. And some neighboring countries.
The Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the origin of the Soviet Union. In February of the same year. The uprising of the Russian people brought an end to the tsarist regime. Which functioned as a monarchy. After a short transitional government. The Bolsheviks. The most radical communists led by Vladimir Lenin finally won.
The confrontation between supporters. And opponents of the Russian Revolution led to a civil war. The Communists won and in 1922 founded. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. With a one-party political system. Ukraine, Belarus, and Transcaucasia directly annexed.
Lenin died in 1924 and succeeded. By Josef Stalin, who ruled the USSR with an iron fist until his death in 1953.
USSR anthem lyrics English
USSR national anthem
Forever twinned in work and friendship
our mighty republics will forever prevail
the great Soviet Union will
remain for ages
the dream of a people
its strength ensures.
Long live our Soviet homeland
erected by the mighty hands of the people
Long live its people united, free
and powerful in a fiery brotherhood
May its red flag inspire us forever,
and may it shine with glory in the sight of humanity
In those dark and stormy days,
led by the great Lenin,
our eyes saw the glow of freedom
and Stalin, our leader,
with absolute faith in the people
inspired us to create the land we longed for
We fight for the future, we
destroy the invader
and win for our country
the laurels of fame.
Such glory will survive in the memory of the peoples
and all generations will honor his name.
In total there were 15 countries that made up the Soviet Union:
These were also joined by the following unrecognized states: Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh, South Ossetia, Transnistria, and Crimea.
Presidents And Leaders
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin: (Ulyanov) (1870-1924) – proletarian revolutionary thinker. Successor to the cause of Marx and Engels, organizer of the CPSU. Founder of the Russian Federation. And the USSR, author of numerous works on the theory and practice of the socialist revolution. And the construction of socialism.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin. (Dzhugashvili) (1879-1953) – one of the leading figures of the CPSU, the Soviet state. JV Stalin was a participant in the revolution of 1905-1907. in Transcaucasia. An active participant in the preparation. And the implementation of the October Revolution of 1917. From 1917 to 1922, he was the People’s Commissar for Nationalities. From 1922 to 1934 – General Secretary, from 1934 – Secretary of the Party Central Committee. During the Great Patriotic War. JV Stalin was chairman of the State Defense Committee. People’s Commissar for Defense, Supreme Commander-in-Chief. And was one of the organizers of the anti-Hitler coalition. At the same time, JV Stalin made political mistakes and gross violations of the law. The personality cult of I.V. Stalin condemned at the XX Congress of the CPSU in 1956.
Malenkov Georgy Maximilianovich. (1902–1988) – politician, Hero of Socialist Labor (1943). In 1939–46 and 1948–53, he was secretary of the Central Committee. In 1946–53 and 1955–57. He was deputy chairman. In 1953–55 he was chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. At the same time in 1955–57. He was minister of power plants of the USSR. From 1957–61 on economic work. Member of the CPSU Central Committee in 1939–57. Member of the Politburo (Presidium) of the Central Committee in 1946–57 (candidate in 1941–46). He was a member of the closest political circle of JV Stalin.
Khrushchev Nikita Sergeevich. (1894-1970) – Soviet statesman and party leader, member of the CPSU since 1918. Political worker of the Civil and Great Patriotic Wars. From September 1953 – First Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, at the same time from 1958 to 1964. – Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. The dethronement of the Stalin personality cult. And the period of the “thaw” in the USSR associated with the activities of NS Khrushchev. In 1964 he relieved of all posts and retired.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev. (1906-1982) – from 1966 to 1982 – General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee. Participant of the Great Patriotic War, where he led political work. Since 1950 L.I.Brezhnev. The first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Moldova. And Since June 1957 – Member of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the CPSU. Since May 1960, L. I. Brezhnev elected Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. held this post until June 1964. At the same time from June 1963 – Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU.
At the October plenum of the Central Committee in 1964. He elected First Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU. In 1966. The 23rd Congress of the CPSU. Restored the post of General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU. Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev elected as a plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU. In 1977 he again took up the post of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. Brezhnev’s rule called the era of stagnation.
Andropov Yuri Vladimirovich.
(1914-1984) – Soviet statesman and party leader. From 1982 to 1984. General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee. Member of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee.
From 1973 to 1982 – Chairman of the State Security Committee. Under the Council of Ministers of the USSR since 1967. General of the Army, Hero of Socialist Labor (1974).
In 1938–40, 1st secretary of the Yaroslavl regional committee of the Komsomol. In 1940–1944, 1st secretary of the Central Committee of the Komsomol of Karelia. 1944–47 he was the 2nd secretary of the Petrozavodsk city committee. In 1947–51, the 2nd secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Karelia. In 1951–53 in the apparatus of the Central Committee of the CPSU. 1953–57, the USSR ambassador to the Hungarian People’s Republic. 1957-1967 head of a department of the Central Committee of the CPSU. Member of the Central Committee of the CPSU since 1961. In 1962–67, secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU. Candidate member of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee in 1967–73. Deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of the 3rd, 6-10th convocations. 1983-1984 – Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
Chernenko Konstantin Ustinovich.
(1911-1985) – Soviet party and statesman. General Secretary of the CPSU. Central Committee from 1984 to 1985. Hero of Socialist Labor (1976).
1941–43 secretary of the Krasnoyarsk regional party committee. In 1945–48 he was secretary of the Penza regional party committee. 1948–56 in the apparatus of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Moldova. In 1956-1960 he worked in the apparatus of the Central Committee of the CPSU. In 1960–65 he was the head of the Secretariat of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. Since 1965 head. department of the Central Committee of the CPSU. A candidate member of the CPSU Central Committee in 1966–71. Member of the CPSU Central Committee since 1971. In 1976-1984, Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee. Deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of the 7-11th convocations.
Gorbachev Mikhail Sergeevich. (b. 1931) – from 1985 to 1991 – General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee. One of the initiators of Perestroika.
From 1955 to 1966 he engaged in Komsomol activities in Stavropol. In 1966-1970. – First Secretary of the Stavropol City Committee. 1970–78 – 1st Secretary of the Stavropol Regional Committee of the CPSU. 1978 he elected Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee. In 1979 – a candidate member of the Politburo, from 1980 to 1991 – a member of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee. In March 1990, at the Third Congress of People’s Deputies of the USSR, he elected President of the USSR. On December 25, 1991, after the Belovezhskaya Agreement, he resigned.
In 1917, the October Revolution, led by Vladimir Lenin. Overthrew the regime of Tsar Nicholas II. Who had to abdicate and a provisional government installed.
Shortly after, in 1922 the USSR was officially constituted. But it was not until February 1924. That it was officially recognized by the powers Great Britain, France, and Italy.
Lenin becomes. The first leader of the state. When he appointed president of the Council of the Soviet Socialist Republics.
At birth, the USSR only had four Soviet socialist republics. Formed directly after the October Revolution. But over the years it continued to grow until it had 15 republics in 1940.
His government had a Central Executive Committee and a Council of People’s Commissars. The members of the government called Soviets. Chosen by local councils. And these reported before Congress.
This socialist federation occupied 22,402,200 square kilometers. Its territory stretched between eastern Europe and northern Asia. For this reason, the USSR had a very varied climate. From subtropical and continental to subarctic and polar.
But, the Soviet Union had more than 150 ethnic groups. and a total population of 293 million inhabitants until 1991. Surpassed only by China and India.
USA vs USSR
From its start, the Soviet Union. Aimed to restructure the economy and politics. To improve the social conditions of the population. At that time (1917). Russia was a very technologically backward country compared to the rest of the world.
For this reason, the Goelro plan designed. It created a network of 30 regional power plants. Ten large hydroelectric plants. And brought electricity to the main companies in the country. Thus, only in its early years. The USSR brought electricity. And industrial development to the population.
In this way, the Soviet Union became. The second most important economy in the world, after the United States. Its industrial production went from 5.5 percent to 20 percent between 1913 and 1980.
Characteristics of the Soviet Union
It was the first state to attempt to build a socialist society, based on the ideals of freedom and equality. This constituted a great difference. With the countries of feudal, slave, and capitalist systems.
The momentum of this socialist society had international significance. As it inspired revolutions in different parts of the world. Such as the Cuban Revolution. And the Sandinista Revolution in Nicaragua.
Besides, the USSR played a fundamental role in the defeat of fascism. That loomed over the world and led the way towards more solidary societies.
For this reason. The Russian Revolution. And the Soviet Union became the most important event of the 20th century.
Among the main characteristics of the Soviet Union we can highlight that:
- It was a socialist state, the main political defender of USSR communism.
- Their main language was Russian.
- Its center of power and capital was in Moscow, present-day Russia.
- It was made up of 15 different republics.
- It came to have more than 22.4 million square kilometers of surface and almost 300 million inhabitants.
- It was considered one of the great political powers.
- It was the main competitor of capitalism.
USSR Cold War
The end of the Second World War left the USSR. And the US as the great world powers, after the collapse of a devastated Europe. Then began a struggle. For ideological domination of the world between these two powers. Each defending its model: Western capitalism vs. Soviet communism.
This conflict was very prolonged and very particular. Since neither of the two countries attacked each other. But they fought their battles through third countries. Financing dictatorships, insurgencies, civil wars. And Revolutions throughout the Third World, especially in Asia. and Latin America.
Also, the USSR and the USA competed in technological, cultural, and weapons matters. Developing much of the key technology for the contemporary world of the 21st century. Such as space travel (the USSR was the first to take a living animal into space. The dog Layka, and inputting. An astronaut in orbit: Yuri Gagarin), computational development. Or the creation and hoarding of nuclear weapons.
Dissolution of USSR
End of the Soviet Union, the U.S.S.R fall, and the USSR become Russia.
The Soviet Union collapsed. And finally dissolved in 1991.
Since 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev. The Head of state of the USSR had tried to transform the regime. By launching some political changes that clashed with the old guard.
This promoted a series of reforms punctuated by 2 keywords. Perestroika (restructuring) and glasnost (transparency, openness). Due to these reforms, the Soviet Union fell apart economically and territorially. So, Society increasingly became aware of corruption and mismanagement by the government.
Although Gorbachev tried to negotiate a new union treaty. Hoping to rebuild the former Soviet Union. It rejected and a coup attempt soon emerged. Gradually, several countries left the USSR, which was greatly weakened.
Because of this, Gorbachev forced to resign. And e l December 25, 1991, the announced collapse of the Soviet Union. A confederation of independent states was then created. And the Russian flag replaced, in the Kremlin. The red flag of the Soviet Union.